In addition, third gas source 58 is preferably used to introduce silane (or, for example, a mixture of silane and SiF4) into chamber 18 from above substrate 20.
Silane (SiH4) is preferably delivered into chamber 18 from second gas source 35a, through second gas controller 37a, and through nozzles 34a.
In the embodiments of the present invention preferably a combination of SiF4 and oxygen from first gas source 35 for introduction into chamber 18 is supplied through orifices 38 of nozzles 34.
The embodiments of the present invention improve upon the above-described structure in a manner which results in films having dielectric constants of less than 3.5 and preferably less than 3.4 and more preferably less than 3.3;
Reference is made initially to FIG. 1. Apparatus for plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of a dielectric film comprises a plasma source 1, preferably a high-density ion source in order to be capable of operating properly at a lower operating temperature, followed by a diffusion chamber 2 having a substrate support 3 adapted to hold the substrate for treatment and to be engaged in the diffusion chamber 2, as shown in position 3a.
The interfacial layer 20 will preferably be allowed to proceed up to 75% or more of the self-limiting thickness.


For Hf(NO3)4 the deposition temperature is preferably between approximately 30 and 200 degrees Celsius.
The interfacial layer is preferably a high-k material.