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This variation means that the dimensions of any pattern being imaged in the resist will vary as the step geometry is traversed.
However, as shown in FIG. 1, the major drawback of using a thin layer of resist 27 is that the variation of resist thickness over a diffusion step 21 on a substrate 23 and into an etched pattern 25 increases as the pattern size becomes smaller.
In addition to using shorter wavelengths during exposure, it is also desirable to use a thinner layer of resist.
Generally, a depth of focus of 1 to 2 .mu.m is required for an adequate lithographic process window, in order to accommodate variations in the thickness or height of the resist film.
The resist contains arylsilsesquioxane polymers with acid sensitive pendant groups as dissolution inhibitors and a photoacid generator.
A method of synthesizing a silicon-containing positive resist for use as a imaging layer in DUV, x-ray, or e-beam lithography is disclosed.
Also, the following Table 1 illustrates the dramatic effect of incorporation of germanium into resist films, on the RIE etch rates in two different plasmas.
The residual resist is removed.
The resist is patterned by e-beam.
The metal layer is coated with e-beam resist.
e) subjecting the layer to be patterned to reactive ion etching with the resist acting as a mask to thereby form the desired pattern on the substrate.
d) developing the resist to form the desired pattern; and
c) imagewise exposing the layer of resist composition to irradiation;
b) providing on the layer to be patterned a layer of a resist composition which comprises a polymer comprising a polymeric backbone having grafted thereon at least one member selected from the group consisting of silicon, germanium, tin and mixtures thereof; and a protecting group;
Conventional novolak/diazonapthoquinone resists used for i-line lithography have to date exhibited excellent dry etch resistance to which other resist materials are compared.
One of the challenges in the fabrication of microelectronic devices and masks is to develop a resist which exhibits good lithographic performance as well as high dry etch resistance for subsequent pattern transfer into an underlying substrate.
After the resist is developed forming the desired mask, the substrate and mask can be immersed in a chemical solution which attacks the substrate to be etched while leaving the mask intact.
The pattern is formed by imagewise exposing the resist material to irradiation by lithographic techniques.
The resist is normally formed of a polymeric organic material.
The mask is typically created by imagewise forming a pattern of resist material over those areas of the substrate to be shielded from the etching.
This composition comprising a polymer having at least one kind of silicon, germanium and tin, and a protective group grafted on the skeleton of the polymer is useful as a resist, has a sensitivity to the radiation for forming an image, and exhibits an enhanced resistance to reactive ion etching.
The disclosed stripping compositions are comprised of a tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in 1:2 volume ratio of NMP and isopropanol (IPA) for removing exposed silicone resin after which the resist mask is removed exposing the remaining silicone resin film protection over active areas of the device.
Miller et al. U.S. Pat. No. 3,947,952, the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein, describes a method of encapsulating beam lead semiconductor devices by a multi-step process including a step involving selective removal of an unmasked portion of a silicone resin through a resist mask.